Grid-scale pumped hydro energy storage for the low countries

Penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the power grid requires large-scale energy storage to ensure grid stability. Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) is among the most mature, environmentally friendly, and economical energy storage technologies, but has traditionally only been feasible at sites with large natural topographic gradients. ALPHEUS addresses this by developing reversible pump-turbines efficient at low heads, that operate between an enclosed inner basin (that functions as the upper or lower reservoir) and a shallow sea or lake.